Envenomation (Scorpion Sting)

Introduction

Scorpion stings occur worldwide. Most
cases are minor but significant
envenomation resulting to death has been reported.
Children are particularly at risk of
scorpion stings and envenomation

Clinical features of scorpion stings and envenomation

Local symptom:

  • Localized pains, edema, erythema,
    paraesthesia, muscle fasciculation and numbness may occur at the site of sting

Systemic symptom:

  • usually due to autonomic discharge, hypersalivation, profuse diaphoresis, lacrimation, miosis, diarrhea, vomiting, bradycardia, hypotension, increased respiratory secretions, priapism, tachycardia, hypertension, mydriasis, hyperthermia, hyperglycemia, agitation, and restlessness may occur.

Investigations

  • There is no specific diagnostic
    investigations, and in most cases, no investigation is required
  • Investigations, when required, should be tailored towards the complications that may occur

Treatment for scorpion stings and envenomation

Non-drug treatment

  • Allay anxiety
  • Cold presses may be applied

Drug Treatment

  • Analgesic: paracetamol, ibuprofen may be used
  • Local anaesthetic agent like lidocaine may be infilterated at the site of bite
  • Midazolam, diazepam: in addition to allaying anxiety, they also act as muscle relaxant
  • Prazosin for hypertension
  • Dobutamine for hypotension
  • Nitroglycerin for pulmonary edema
  • Antivenom: are available and increase the rate of toxin elimination